Archimedes

Archimedes Thoughtful by Domenico Fetti (1620)

The most widely known anecdote about Archimedes tells of how he invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According to Vitruvius, a votive crown for a temple had been made for King Hiero II of Syracuse, who had supplied the pure gold to be used; Archimedes was asked to determine whether some silver had been substituted by the dishonest goldsmith. Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so he could not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate its density. In Vitruvius’ account, Archimedes noticed while taking a bath that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown. For practical purposes water is incompressible, so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained. This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying «Eureka! The test on the crown was conducted successfully, proving that silver had indeed been mixed in. The story of the golden crown does not appear anywhere in the known works of Archimedes. The practicality of the method it describes has been called into question due to the extreme accuracy that would be required while measuring the water displacement. Archimedes may have instead sought a solution that applied the principle known in hydrostatics as Archimedes’ principle, which he describes in his treatise On Floating Bodies. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.[39] Using this principle, it would have been possible to compare the density of the crown to that of pure gold by balancing the crown on a scale with a pure gold reference sample of the same weight, then immersing the apparatus in water. The difference in density between the two samples would cause the scale to tip accordingly.[40] Galileo Galilei, who in 1586 invented a hydrostatic balance for weighing metals in air and water inspired by the work of Archimedes, considered it «probable that this method is the same that Archimedes followed, since, besides being very accurate, it is based on demonstrations found by Archimedes himself.»

Childhood

Everything comes from childhood.We do our first steps in childhood.We learn laughing,crying,loving and being loved.When we were little we were being helped from our parents.Our parents helped us to stand up ,to talk,to walk into life.Now we can find so many funny and sad stories from our childhood.Everyone had childhood.We were grown up from childhood and inside us we are little kids .

But for now here you can find some childhood stories that we separated from all of the stories in google….

When I was seven: «Hurray! I am finally going with my grandma to the countryside!»
When I was 14: «Parents are so annoying with their rules!»
When I was 20: «It seems like grandma went crazy. She rips up the grass all day long. I would understand if it was next to the flowers or something, but what is wrong with the grass by the fence?»
At 25: «The countryside is only useful for having a barbecue…»
35: «Should we try to grow some radishes in the garden?»
45: «The garden’s full of veggies at last!»
60: «Look at the state of that fence, all the grass is growing next to it…»
78: «I have to carry their super heavy backpacks to the house. Neither my children nor my grandchildren help me with the garden. They say it’s not worth it, they can buy the groceries for me. And only my great grandson makes me happy. He is so excited that it’s summer again and we can go to the countryside. Life goes on…»


***


My dad was always the one who used to take me to kindergarten. One time during winter, the road was covered in ice. After a few unsuccessful attempts we got down on all fours and climbed up the hill. We both arrived just in time — I made it to breakfast at school, and my dad made it to work.


***


I remember it like it was yesterday.

We used to go to my grandfather’s bee farm out in the country. We’d travel out there on a bike with an extra seat, pedalling real quick. Grandma would feed us on a gallon of milk and home-made bread. When we arrived, we put leave milk in jars in the mountain river, so it would stay cool and wouldn’t go off. We ate freshly harvested honey with bread and drank milk. It was unforgettable.


***


For me, childhood memories are all made up of recollections of tasty food. I had this sandwich made up of two cookies and just some butter between them. Now that’s the taste of childhood! Tomorrow I’m going to grab a can of condensed milk; I just realised how much I miss it. You all know what I’m talking about!


***


When I was five, I was always convinced that my dad, when he came back from work in the evening, got bored while watching TV. That’s why I would always go to my room, grab some toys and deliberately break them. Then I’d bring them to my dad so he could fix him. I thought it made him happier…


***


My grandma used to work in a garage in a warehouse, and often took me with her to work. One time she didn’t keep her on eye on me, and I sneaked out. She found me inside the garage. I was standing next to a barrel of gold grains, rubbing the gold into my hair. I thought I would look like Rapunzel! Although we washed my hair several times, I still left traces of gold wherever I went for a few weeks, like a fairy.


***


I remember vividly when my mom would tell me off by saying: «So if everybody started wearing ripped jeans, you would as well?» I don’t know who exactly it was who started that trend, but she turned out to be prophetically right…


***


This one winter my friends and I decided to try and do some pull-ups on the swings by our house. Everybody was wearing fur coats and mittens. We were just hanging their like sausages. I was the only one who more less succeeded. And then somebody asked if I could touch the metal part with my tongue. Yeah, I wasn’t the smartest kid…


***


I remember that when I was in the 5th grade, one time my parents woke me up in the morning as they always did. I asked them, «can I skip school today?» (this question was probably asked quite often by plenty of children). My dad responded: «Of course you can, if you get up, get dressed and make your bed quickly enough.» I credulously believed him, and did everything as fast and efficiently as I could…And then I learned that it was April Fools Day, and I had just 30 more minutes before I had to go to school.


***


When I was a child, I was often sent to the store to buy things. I’d always forget to buy something, and would be sent back to the store again. I wanted to make sure that the sales assistant didn’t get the impression that I was a foolish boy with a bad memory, so I would turn my jacket inside out, change my hairstyle, put on a different facial expression and speak in a lowered voice. I was a master of conspiracy.


***


Once, I heard that if a cat lies all curled up, it’s a sign of bad weather. I get it, I thought — I see who’s in charge here. And I started going around ‘uncurling’ curled-up cats, hoping the weather would improve.


***


I can’t believe that when I was a child I thought that people my current age behave like adults…

My achievements and difficulties during the academic year

In this year for the first time I went to Arates. I was very happy. In Arates we played different games. I played with dogs, they licked me. As travelling is an important part in our school I succeeded.

So I get great marks in Sociology, my teacher says that my knowledge is best of the best .Also I get good marks from my English because I worked hardly this year and improved my knowledge.

I also have many difficulties when learning Physics, Chemistry ,Biology. I do my best to learn these subjects as well as I can.

1.The pills that are used here cost a lot of money!
2.The nurse who saw me was very nice.
3.That’s the office where my mother used to work.

4.There’s a girl in my class who gets terrible headaches.
5.My grandfather can remember the days when almost nobody travelled by by plane.
6.I know a girl whose father is a teacher at your school.

2.a takes people to hospital
3.ghas a health problem
4.e a very large number of people have the same disease
5.b liuqid is put into a person’s arm with a needle.
6.d operates on people
7. f you put on a cut to keep it clean
8.h prevents you from getting a disease

Homework

Ex 2 c, pg 69

1. Someone gave me this book for my birthday, but I can’t remember who.

2.
 I rang your place four times this morning, but no one answered.

3.
 Use Your Memory by Tony Buzan is a brilliant book. I think everyone should read it. 

4.
  It was a hard question. She asked all her friends, but none of them knew the answer.

5. I can remember everything our teacher said today’s lesson, but i can’t remember what the homework is!

6.
 Jim’s lost his watch! He’s looked for it everywhere, but he can’t find it.


7.
 My dad doesn’t see his friends from Karaganda very often. That’s why he was very happy that all of them came to his party.

Ex 3 b, pg 69

1.What? You got 100% in the test? I don’t believe you!

2.He looked completely different – I didn’t recognise him!

3.You saw a ghost? You’re crazy. I don’t believe in ghosts.

4.It’s a very strange story, but it could be true. I suppose.

5.Well, I don’t know the answer, so I’ll have to guess.

6.Don’t look out of the window – concentrate on your work.

7.Living on an island in the Pacific Ocean – can you imagine that?

8.She left without saying goodbye – I wonder why she did that?

9.It’s a difficult question, so think carefully before you answer.

10.After twenty minutes, I realised I was in the wrong place.

Exe 7, pg 71

c. Circle the correct words.

1. You can go out tonight, but you mustn’t come home later than 1 am.

2. Great! I’m under 12! I don’t have to pay!

3. Great! No school today – I don’t have to get up early.

4. OK, you can keep it –  but it mustn’t leave this room!

d. Complete the sentences with mustmustn’t, or don’t have to.

1. I mustn’t forget to send my grandmother a birthday card!

2. You really must see that film! It’s great!

3. My parents don’t have to go to work tomorrow because it’s a public holiday.

4. My sister mustn’t go to school yet because she’s only three!

5. Hurry up! We mustn’t be late again.

Homework

Ex 8, pg 64

b. Complete the sentences so that they make sense.

1. Joel doesn’t think very highly of Maths.

2. Joel is grateful because Pete offered to study with him.

3. Pete thinks Joel’s room is too messy.

4. Pete doesn’t really believe that Joel always finds things quickly in his room.

E9, pg 65

a. Find the expressions 1-6 in the story. Who says them? How do you say them in your language?

1. There’s no point in… – Joel

2. There’s nothing wrong with… – Pete

3. It’s up to you. – Pete

4. Anything else? – Pete

5. … all over the place. – Pete

6. if you say so… – Pete

b. Complete the dialogues with expressions 1-6 from Exercise 9a.

1. A: Can I have two kilos of apples, please?

    B: Sure. There you are. Anything else?

2. A: This CD is the best in the history of the world.

    B: Well, there’s nothing wrong with it – but I didn’t think it was very special.

3. A: Where do you want to go tonight?

    B: It’s up to you. I don’t mind where we go.

4. A: Oh no! It’s starting to rain – and we haven’t got an umbrella!

    B: Well, there’s no point in complaining. We just have to walk – and get wet!

5. A: What’s the matter Mum?

    B: It’s the living room, Sarah. You’ve left things all over the place. Please put your things away!

6. A: So what? There’s nothing wrong with that.

    B: Yes there is – you could damage your ears.